外尔半金属 Weyl semimetal

Weyl fermions are massless chiral fermions embodying the mathematical concept of a Weyl spinor. Weyl spinors in turn play an important role in quantum field theory and the Standard Model, where they are a building block for fermions in quantum field theory. Weyl spinors are a solution to the Dirac equation derived by Hermann Weyl, called the Weyl equation. For example, one-half of a charged Dirac fermion of a definite chirality is a Weyl fermion.

Weyl fermions may be realized as emergent quasiparticles in a low-energy condensed matter system. This prediction was first proposed by Conyers Herring in 1937, in the context of electronic band structures of solid state systems such as electronic crystals. Topological materials in the vicinity of band inversion transition became a primary target in search of topologically protected bulk electronic band crossings.

The first (non-electronic) liquid state which is suggested, has similarly emergent but neutral excitation and theoretically interpreted superfluid’s chiral anomaly as observation of Fermi points is in Helium-3 A superfluid phase. Crystalline tantalum arsenide (TaAs) is the first discovered topological Weyl fermion semimetal which exhibits topological surface Fermi arcs where Weyl fermion is electrically charged along the line of original suggestion by Herring. An electronic Weyl fermion is not only charged but stable at room temperature where there is no such superfluid or liquid state known.

参考资料:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weyl_semimetal

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/魏尔费米子

https://baike.baidu.com/item/外尔半金属/20155208