安德烈夫反射 Andreev reflection

Andreev reflection (AR), named after the Russian physicist Alexander F. Andreev, is a type of particle scattering which occurs at interfaces between a superconductor (S) and a normal state material (N). It is a charge-transfer process by which normal current in N is converted to supercurrent in S. Each Andreev reflection transfers a charge 2e across the interface, avoiding the forbidden single-particle transmission within the superconducting energy gap.

参考资料:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreev_reflection

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/安德烈夫反射