莱昂哈德·欧拉 Leonhard Paul Euler

Leonhard Euler (/ˈɔɪlər/; 15 April 1707 – 18 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, geographer, logician and engineer who founded the studies of graph theory and topology and made pioneering and influential discoveries in many other branches of mathematics such as analytic number theory, complex analysis, and infinitesimal calculus. He introduced much of modern mathematical terminology and notation, including the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for … 继续阅读莱昂哈德·欧拉 Leonhard Paul Euler

约翰·卡尔·弗里德里希·高斯 Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (/ɡaʊs/; 30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields in mathematics and science. Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum (Latin for ‘”the foremost of mathematicians”‘) and “the greatest mathematician since antiquity”, Gauss had an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science, and is ranked among history’s most influ … 继续阅读约翰·卡尔·弗里德里希·高斯 Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss

格奥尔格·弗雷德里希·伯恩哈德·黎曼 Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis, he is mostly known for the first rigorous formulation of the integral, the Riemann integral, and his work on Fourier series. His contributions to complex analysis include most notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces, breaking new ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis. … 继续阅读格奥尔格·弗雷德里希·伯恩哈德·黎曼 Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann

朱尔·亨利·庞加莱 Jules Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (UK: /ˈpwæ̃kɑːreɪ/ [US: stress final syllable] 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as “The Last Universalist”, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime. As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical phys … 继续阅读朱尔·亨利·庞加莱 Jules Henri Poincaré

约翰·冯·诺依曼 John von Neumann

John von Neumann (/vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist and engineer. Von Neumann was regarded as perhaps the mathematician with the widest coverage of the subject in his time and was said to have been “the last representative of the great mathematicians who were equally at home in pure and applied mathematics”. He integrated pure and applied sciences. Von Neumann made major contributions to many fie … 继续阅读约翰·冯·诺依曼 John von Neumann

艾伦·麦席森·图灵 Alan Mathison Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. He is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artifi … 继续阅读艾伦·麦席森·图灵 Alan Mathison Turing

克劳德·艾尔伍德·香农 Claude Elwood Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as a “father of information theory”. As a 21-year-old master’s degree student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he wrote his thesis demonstrating that electrical applications of Boolean algebra could construct any logical numerical relationship. Shannon contributed to the field of cryptanalysis for national defense of the Unite … 继续阅读克劳德·艾尔伍德·香农 Claude Elwood Shannon

陈省身 Shiing-Shen Chern

Shiing-Shen Chern (/tʃɜːrn/; Chinese: 陳省身; October 28, 1911 – December 3, 2004) was a Chinese-American mathematician and poet. He made fundamental contributions to differential geometry and topology. He has been called the “father of modern differential geometry” and is widely regarded as a leader in geometry and one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century, winning numerous awards and recognition including the Wolf Prize and the inaugural Shaw Prize. In memory of Shii … 继续阅读陈省身 Shiing-Shen Chern

让·巴普蒂斯·约瑟夫·傅里叶 Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (/ˈfʊrieɪ, -iər/; 21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series, which eventually developed into Fourier analysis and harmonic analysis, and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations. The Fourier transform and Fourier’s law of conduction are also named in his honour. Fourier is also generally credited with the discovery of the greenhous … 继续阅读让·巴普蒂斯·约瑟夫·傅里叶 Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier

卷积 Convolution

In mathematics (in particular, functional analysis), convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) that produces a third function (fg) that expresses how the shape of one is modified by the other. The term convolution refers to both the result function and to the process of computing it. It is defined as the integral of the product of the two functions after one is reversed and shifted. The integral is evaluated for all values of shift, producing the convolution function. So … 继续阅读卷积 Convolution

分形 Fractal

In mathematics, fractal is a term used to describe geometric shapes containing detailed structure at arbitrarily small scales, usually having a fractal dimension strictly exceeding the topological dimension. Many fractals appear similar at various scales, as illustrated in successive magnifications of the Mandelbrot set. This exhibition of similar patterns at increasingly smaller scales is called self-similarity, also known as expanding symmetry or unfolding symmetry; if this replication is exac … 继续阅读分形 Fractal

Python

Python is a high-level, interpreted, general-purpose programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability with the use of significant indentation. Python is dynamically-typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including structured (particularly procedural), object-oriented and functional programming. It is often described as a “batteries included” language due to its comprehensive standard library. Guido van Rossum began working on P … 继续阅读Python

Fortran

Fortran (/ˈfɔːrtræn/; formerly FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Fortran was originally developed by IBM in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, and subsequently came to dominate scientific computing. It has been in use for over six decades in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, … 继续阅读Fortran

Julia

Julia is a high-level, high-performance, dynamic programming language. While it is a general-purpose language and can be used to write any application, many of its features are well suited for numerical analysis and computational science. Distinctive aspects of Julia’s design include a type system with parametric polymorphism in a dynamic programming language; with multiple dispatch as its core programming paradigm. Julia supports concurrent, (composable) parallel and distributed computing … 继续阅读Julia

Bash

Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell. First released in 1989, it has been used as the default login shell for most Linux distributions. A version is also available for Windows 10 via the Windows Subsystem for Linux. It is also the default user shell in Solaris 11. Bash was also the default shell in all versions of Apple macOS prior to the 2019 release of macOS Catalina, which changed the default she … 继续阅读Bash

C

C (/ˈsiː/, as in the letter c) is a general-purpose computer programming language. It was created in the 1970s by Dennis Ritchie, and remains very widely used and influential. By design, C’s features cleanly reflect the capabilities of the targeted CPUs. It has found lasting use in operating systems, device drivers, protocol stacks, though decreasingly for application software, and is common in computer architectures that range from the largest supercomputers to the smallest microcontrolle … 继续阅读C

C++

C++ (/ˌsiːˌplʌsˈplʌs/) is a general-purpose programming language created by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or “C with Classes”. The language has expanded significantly over time, and modern C++ now has object-oriented, generic, and functional features in addition to facilities for low-level memory manipulation. It is almost always implemented as a compiled language, and many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free … 继续阅读C++

Java

Java is a high-level, class-based, object-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is a general-purpose programming language intended to let programmers write once, run anywhere (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need to recompile. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer archi … 继续阅读Java

JavaScript

JavaScript (/ˈdʒɑːvəskrɪpt/), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language that is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and CSS. Over 97% of websites use JavaScript on the client side for web page behavior, often incorporating third-party libraries. All major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute the code on users’ devices. JavaScript is a high-level, often just-in-time compiled language that conforms to the ECMAScript standard. It has … 继续阅读JavaScript

PHP

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language geared toward web development It was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. The PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code is usually processed on a web server by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module, a daemon or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. On a w … 继续阅读PHP