艾萨克·牛顿 Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, theologian, and author (described in his time as a “natural philosopher”) widely recognised as one of the greatest mathematicians and physicists of all time and among the most influential scientists. He was a key figure in the philosophical revolution known as the Enlightenment. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural … 继续阅读艾萨克·牛顿 Isaac Newton

阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦 Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (/ˈaɪnstaɪn/; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest and most influential physicists of all time. Einstein is best known for developing the theory of relativity, but he also made important contributions to the development of the theory of quantum mechanics. Relativity and quantum mechanics are together the two pillars of modern physics. His mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which arises from rel … 继续阅读阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦 Albert Einstein

詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦 James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and scientist responsible for the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, which was the first theory to describe electricity, magnetism and light as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism have been called the “second great unification in physics” where the first one had been realised by Isaac Newton. With the publication of “A Dynamic … 继续阅读詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦 James Clerk Maxwell

杨振宁 Yang Chen-Ning

Yang Chen-Ning or Chen-Ning Yang (Chinese: 杨振宁; pinyin: Yáng Zhènníng; born 1 October 1922), also known as C. N. Yang or by the English name Frank Yang, is a Chinese theoretical physicist who made significant contributions to statistical mechanics, integrable systems, gauge theory, and both particle physics and condensed matter physics. He and Tsung-Dao Lee received the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on parity non-conservation of weak interaction. The two proposed that one of the bas … 继续阅读杨振宁 Yang Chen-Ning

马克斯·普朗克 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (/ˈplæŋk/; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many substantial contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests primarily on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. In 1948, the German scientific institution Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Plan … 继续阅读马克斯·普朗克 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

保罗·阿德里安·莫里斯·狄拉克 Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (/dɪˈræk/; 8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was a British theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century. Dirac made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. Among other discoveries, he formulated the Dirac equation which describes the behaviour of fermions and predicted the existence of antimatter. Dirac shared the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics with Erwin … 继续阅读保罗·阿德里安·莫里斯·狄拉克 Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

维尔纳·海森堡 Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (pronounced ˈvɛʁnɐ kaʁl ˈhaɪ̯zn̩ˌbɛʁk) (Würzburg, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire; 5 December 1901 – Munich, Bavaria, Germany; 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, his matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. He is known for the uncert … 继续阅读维尔纳·海森堡 Werner Heisenberg

埃尔温·鲁道夫·约瑟夫·亚历山大·薛定谔 Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (UK: /ˈʃrɜːdɪŋər/, US: /ˈʃroʊ-/; 12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as Erwin Schrodinger or Erwin Schroedinger, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian-Irish physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in quantum theory: the Schrödinger equation provides a way to calculate the wave function of a system and how it changes dynamically in time. In addition, he wrote many works on various aspects of physics: statistical mechanics and t … 继续阅读埃尔温·鲁道夫·约瑟夫·亚历山大·薛定谔 Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger

理查德·菲利普斯·费曼 Richard Phillips Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (/ˈfaɪnmən/; May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as his work in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 jointly with Jul … 继续阅读理查德·菲利普斯·费曼 Richard Phillips Feynman

列夫·达维多维奇·朗道 Lev Davidovich Landau

Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian: Лев Дави́дович Ланда́у; 22 January 1908 – 1 April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. His accomplishments include the independent co-discovery of the density matrix method in quantum mechanics (alongside John von Neumann), the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second-order phase transitions, the Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity, the theo … 继续阅读列夫·达维多维奇·朗道 Lev Davidovich Landau

菲利普·沃伦·安德森 Philip W. Anderson

Philip Warren Anderson (December 13, 1923 – March 29, 2020) was an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate. Anderson made contributions to the theories of localization, antiferromagnetism, symmetry breaking (including a paper in 1962 discussing symmetry breaking in particle physics, leading to the development of the Standard Model around 10 years later), and high-temperature superconductivity, and to the philosophy of science through his writings on emergent phenomena. Anderson is also … 继续阅读菲利普·沃伦·安德森 Philip W. Anderson

凝聚态物理学 Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter, especially the solid and liquid phases which arise from electromagnetic forces between atoms. More generally, the subject deals with “condensed” phases of matter: systems of many constituents with strong interactions between them. More exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnet … 继续阅读凝聚态物理学 Condensed matter physics

拓扑绝缘体 Topological insulator

A topological insulator is a material that behaves as an insulator in its interior but whose surface contains conducting states, meaning that electrons can only move along the surface of the material. Topological insulators have non-trivial symmetry-protected topological order; however, having a conducting surface is not unique to topological insulators, since ordinary band insulators can also support conductive surface states. What is special about topological insulators is that their surface s … 继续阅读拓扑绝缘体 Topological insulator

外尔半金属 Weyl semimetal

Weyl fermions are massless chiral fermions embodying the mathematical concept of a Weyl spinor. Weyl spinors in turn play an important role in quantum field theory and the Standard Model, where they are a building block for fermions in quantum field theory. Weyl spinors are a solution to the Dirac equation derived by Hermann Weyl, called the Weyl equation. For example, one-half of a charged Dirac fermion of a definite chirality is a Weyl fermion. Weyl fermions may be realized as emergent quasipa … 继续阅读外尔半金属 Weyl semimetal

磁性拓扑绝缘体 Magnetic topological insulator

Magnetic topological insulators are three dimensional magnetic materials with a non-trivial topological index protected by a symmetry other than time-reversal. In contrast with a non-magnetic topological insulator, a magnetic topological insulator can have naturally gapped surface states as long as the quantizing symmetry is broken at the surface. These gapped surfaces exhibit a topologically protected half-quantized surface anomalous Hall conductivity (e^{2}/2h) perpendicular to the surface. Th … 继续阅读磁性拓扑绝缘体 Magnetic topological insulator

铁磁性 Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets. In physics, several different types of magnetism are distinguished. Ferromagnetism (along with the similar effect ferrimagnetism) is the strongest type and is responsible for the common phenomenon of magnetism in magnets encountered in everyday life. Substances respond weakly to magnetic fields with three other types of magnetism—paramagnetism, diamagnetism, and an … 继续阅读铁磁性 Ferromagnetism

亚铁磁性 Ferrimagnetism

A ferrimagnetic material is a material that has populations of atoms with opposing magnetic moments, as in antiferromagnetism. For ferrimagnetic materials, these moments are unequal in magnitude so a spontaneous magnetization remains. This can for example occur when the populations consist of different atoms or ions (such as Fe2+ and Fe3+). Ferrimagnetism has often been confused with ferromagnetism. The oldest known magnetic substance, magnetite (Fe3O4), was classified as a ferromagnet before Lo … 继续阅读亚铁磁性 Ferrimagnetism

反铁磁性 Antiferromagnetism

In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins (on different sublattices) pointing in opposite directions. This is, like ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism, a manifestation of ordered magnetism. Generally, antiferromagnetic order may exist at sufficiently low temperatures, but vanishes at and above the Néel temperature – named after Louis Néel, who had first iden … 继续阅读反铁磁性 Antiferromagnetism

顺磁性 Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby some materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field. In contrast with this behavior, diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields and form induced magnetic fields in the direction opposite to that of the applied magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials include most chemical elements and some compounds; they have a relative magnetic … 继续阅读顺磁性 Paramagnetism

抗磁性 Diamagnetism

Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force. In contrast, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials are attracted by a magnetic field. Diamagnetism is a quantum mechanical effect that occurs in all materials; when it is the only contribution to the magnetism, the material is called diamagnetic. In paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances, the weak diamagnetic force … 继续阅读抗磁性 Diamagnetism