量子霍尔效应 Quantum Hall effect

The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantized version of the Hall effect which is observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall resistance Rxy exhibits steps that take on the quantized values. The striking feature of the integer quantum Hall effect is the persistence of the quantization (i.e. the Hall plateau) as the electron density is varied. Since the electron density remains constant when the … 继续阅读量子霍尔效应 Quantum Hall effect

几何相位 Geometric phase

In classical and quantum mechanics, geometric phase is a phase difference acquired over the course of a cycle, when a system is subjected to cyclic adiabatic processes, which results from the geometrical properties of the parameter space of the Hamiltonian. The phenomenon was independently discovered by T. Kato (1950), S. Pancharatnam (1956), and by H. C. Longuet-Higgins (1958) and later generalized by Sir Michael Berry (1984). It is also known as the Pancharatnam–Berry phase, Pancharatnam phase … 继续阅读几何相位 Geometric phase

贝里联络和贝里曲率 Berry connection and curvature

In physics, Berry connection and Berry curvature are related concepts which can be viewed, respectively, as a local gauge potential and gauge field associated with the Berry phase or geometric phase. These concepts were introduced by Michael Berry in a paper published in 1984 emphasizing how geometric phases provide a powerful unifying concept in several branches of classical and quantum physics. 参考资料: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berry_connection_and_curvature

阿哈罗诺夫-玻姆效应/AB 效应 Aharonov–Bohm effect

The Aharonov–Bohm effect, sometimes called the Ehrenberg–Siday–Aharonov–Bohm effect, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charged particle is affected by an electromagnetic potential (φ, A), despite being confined to a region in which both the magnetic field B and electric field E are zero. The underlying mechanism is the coupling of the electromagnetic potential with the complex phase of a charged particle’s wave function, and the Aharonov–Bohm effect is accordingly … 继续阅读阿哈罗诺夫-玻姆效应/AB 效应 Aharonov–Bohm effect

AC效应 Aharonov–Casher effect

The Aharonov–Casher effect is a quantum mechanical phenomenon predicted in 1984 by Yakir Aharonov and Aharon Casher, in which a traveling magnetic dipole is affected by an electric field. It is dual to the Aharonov–Bohm effect, in which the quantum phase of a charged particle depends upon which side of a magnetic flux tube it comes through. In the Aharonov–Casher effect, the particle has a magnetic moment and the tubes are charged instead. It was observed in a gravitational neutron interferomete … 继续阅读AC效应 Aharonov–Casher effect

安德森局域化 Anderson localization

In condensed matter physics, Anderson localization (also known as strong localization) is the absence of diffusion of waves in a disordered medium. This phenomenon is named after the American physicist P. W. Anderson, who was the first to suggest that electron localization is possible in a lattice potential, provided that the degree of randomness (disorder) in the lattice is sufficiently large, as can be realized for example in a semiconductor with impurities or defects. Anderson localization is … 继续阅读安德森局域化 Anderson localization

弱局域化 Weak localization

Weak localization is a physical effect which occurs in disordered electronic systems at very low temperatures. The effect manifests itself as a positive correction to the resistivity of a metal or semiconductor. The name emphasizes the fact that weak localization is a precursor of Anderson localization, which occurs at strong disorder. 参考资料: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weak_localization https://baike.baidu.com/item/弱局域效应/440033

自旋-轨道作用 Spin–orbit interaction

In quantum physics, the spin–orbit interaction (also called spin–orbit effect or spin–orbit coupling) is a relativistic interaction of a particle’s spin with its motion inside a potential. A key example of this phenomenon is the spin–orbit interaction leading to shifts in an electron’s atomic energy levels, due to electromagnetic interaction between the electron’s magnetic dipole, its orbital motion, and the electrostatic field of the positively charged nucleus. This phenomenon … 继续阅读自旋-轨道作用 Spin–orbit interaction

Rashba效应 Rashba effect

The Rashba effect, also called Bychkov–Rashba effect, is a momentum-dependent splitting of spin bands in bulk crystals and low-dimensional condensed matter systems (such as heterostructures and surface states) similar to the splitting of particles and anti-particles in the Dirac Hamiltonian. The splitting is a combined effect of spin–orbit interaction and asymmetry of the crystal potential, in particular in the direction perpendicular to the two-dimensional plane (as applied to surfaces and hete … 继续阅读Rashba效应 Rashba effect

Dresselhaus效应 Dresselhaus effect

The Dresselhaus effect is a phenomenon in solid-state physics in which spin–orbit interaction causes energy bands to split. It is usually present in crystal systems lacking inversion symmetry. The effect is named after Gene Dresselhaus, husband of Mildred Dresselhaus, who discovered this splitting in 1955. Spin–orbit interaction is a relativistic coupling between the electric field produced by an ion-core and the resulting dipole moment arising from the relative motion of the electron, and its i … 继续阅读Dresselhaus效应 Dresselhaus effect

塞曼效应 Zeeman effect

The Zeeman effect (/ˈzeɪmən/) is the effect of splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, who discovered it in 1896 and received a Nobel prize for this discovery. It is analogous to the Stark effect, the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field. Also similar to the Stark effect, transitions between different components have, in general, diffe … 继续阅读塞曼效应 Zeeman effect

斯塔克效应 Stark effect

The Stark effect is the shifting and splitting of spectral lines of atoms and molecules due to the presence of an external electric field. It is the electric-field analogue of the Zeeman effect, where a spectral line is split into several components due to the presence of the magnetic field. Although initially coined for the static case, it is also used in the wider context to describe the effect of time-dependent electric fields. In particular, the Stark effect is responsible for the pressure b … 继续阅读斯塔克效应 Stark effect

反对称交换作用 Antisymmetric exchange(Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction)

In Physics, antisymmetric exchange, also known as the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI), is a contribution to the total magnetic exchange interaction between two neighboring magnetic spins. In magnetically ordered systems, it favors a spin canting of otherwise parallel or antiparallel aligned magnetic moments and thus, is a source of weak ferromagnetic behavior in an antiferromagnet. The interaction is fundamental to the production of magnetic skyrmions and explains the magnetoelectric eff … 继续阅读反对称交换作用 Antisymmetric exchange(Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction)

交换作用 Exchange interaction

In chemistry and physics, the exchange interaction (with an exchange energy and exchange term) is a quantum mechanical effect that only occurs between identical particles. Despite sometimes being called an exchange force in an analogy to classical force, it is not a true force as it lacks a force carrier. The effect is due to the wave function of indistinguishable particles being subject to exchange symmetry, that is, either remaining unchanged (symmetric) or changing sign (antisymmetric) when t … 继续阅读交换作用 Exchange interaction

电子关联 Electronic correlation

Electronic correlation is the interaction between electrons in the electronic structure of a quantum system. The correlation energy is a measure of how much the movement of one electron is influenced by the presence of all other electrons. Within the Hartree–Fock method of quantum chemistry, the antisymmetric wave function is approximated by a single Slater determinant. Exact wave functions, however, cannot generally be expressed as single determinants. The single-determinant approximation does … 继续阅读电子关联 Electronic correlation

近藤效应 Kondo effect

In physics, the Kondo effect describes the scattering of conduction electrons in a metal due to magnetic impurities, resulting in a characteristic change i.e. a minimum in electrical resistivity with temperature. The cause of the effect was first explained by Jun Kondo, who applied third-order perturbation theory to the problem to account for scattering of s-orbital conduction electrons off d-orbital electrons localized at impurities (Kondo model). Kondo’s calculation predicted that the sc … 继续阅读近藤效应 Kondo effect

卡西米尔效应 Casimir effect

In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect is a physical force acting on the macroscopic boundaries of a confined space which arises from the quantum fluctuations of the field. It is named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir, who predicted the effect for electromagnetic systems in 1948. In the same year, Casimir together with Dirk Polder described a similar effect experienced by a neutral atom in the vicinity of a macroscopic interface which is referred to as Casimir–Polder force. Their r … 继续阅读卡西米尔效应 Casimir effect

安德烈夫反射 Andreev reflection

Andreev reflection (AR), named after the Russian physicist Alexander F. Andreev, is a type of particle scattering which occurs at interfaces between a superconductor (S) and a normal state material (N). It is a charge-transfer process by which normal current in N is converted to supercurrent in S. Each Andreev reflection transfers a charge 2e across the interface, avoiding the forbidden single-particle transmission within the superconducting energy gap. 参考资料: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andree … 继续阅读安德烈夫反射 Andreev reflection

拉莫尔进动 Larmor precession

In physics, Larmor precession (named after Joseph Larmor) is the precession of the magnetic moment of an object about an external magnetic field. The phenomenon is conceptually similar to the precession of a tilted classical gyroscope in an external torque-exerting gravitational field. Objects with a magnetic moment also have angular momentum and effective internal electric current proportional to their angular momentum; these include electrons, protons, other fermions, many atomic and nuclear s … 继续阅读拉莫尔进动 Larmor precession

古斯-汉欣位移 Goos–Hänchen shift

The Goos–Hänchen effect (named after Hermann Fritz Gustav Goos (1883 – 1968) and Hilda Hänchen (1919 – 2013) is an optical phenomenon in which linearly polarized light undergoes a small lateral shift when totally internally reflected. The shift is perpendicular to the direction of propagation in the plane containing the incident and reflected beams. This effect is the linear polarization analog of the Imbert–Fedorov effect. This effect occurs because the reflections of a finite sized beam will i … 继续阅读古斯-汉欣位移 Goos–Hänchen shift